For many of us, it may seem magical to be able to capture energy from the sun and produce electricity. Thanks to the photovoltaic effect, one form of energy can be turned into another. Due to the immense heat from the sun, the planet is warm, and some energy can become electricity. Solar panels convert solar energy into electrical energy.
So how does it work? Light hits an atom, and in some cases can let the electron be free from the atom, and it moves inside the crystal structure. With two layers you can provide electricity. Only a small amount comes from each solar cell, so they need to be connected together. With a roof full of cells, the entire house can be powered. There are a few hurdles to overcome, as the current produced is different from the one needed. Solar panels generate DC and appliances need AC, and there has to be a way to store it.
The amount of energy that can be stored will depend on the equipment being used. Some materials absorb light better than others. There are individual solar panels that can overcome the issue of the material to be used and this is by using multiple materials.
The panels are not cheap and need to be precisely constructed. The controller also costs a lot and need to be able to cope with a lot of energy. In some regions of the States, up to $900, a year can be saved thanks to solar power, although the installation cost can be as much as $30,000.
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